United States citizens are not allowed to vote online. However, some uniformed US citizens who are living abroad, may vote by email or fax. That is possible only if their state permits them to return their absentee ballots, by fax or email.
According to the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act of 1986, members of the US armed forces, Public Health Service, Merchant Marine, NOAA, who are above age 18, may cast their votes, even if they are outside the country. Similarly, this Act allows US citizens who are residing outside America to obtain absentee ballots and cast their votes.
They may send their voted absentee ballots by mail, courier, fax or email. However, only few American states allow the citizens residing abroad, who meet the UOCAVA requirements, to return their ballots by fax or email. If your state allows you to submit your voted ballot by email, you will have to scan the ballot and attach it to an email.
Absentee voting procedures differ from state to state. Hurricane Sandy has displaced many residents and New Jersey, will now allow the US citizens who are victims of the hurricane, to vote by email or fax. However, US citizens, who meet the requirements alone will be allowed to cast their votes, in these formats.
National Institute of Standards and Technology, is responsible to make recommendations regarding the voting procedures. It has concluded after its research, that the internet voting system is not secure. It says that the internet voting system has not been certified because this system lacks voter authentication.
If you are outside the United States and if you look forward to vote by fax or email, you may go through the Voting Assistance Guide. This guide contains information about the voting procedures, deadlines and the laws.